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I make it a habit to use “shopt -o -s nounset” in my scripts. Even zsh 's assoc+= … Bash v4 and higher support associative arrays, which are also very useful. Bash supports both regular arrays that use integers as the array index, and associative arrays, which use a string as the array index. Now we will present some examples that will elaborate on what all you can do with Associative Arrays in bash: In this example we will explain how you can: You can print a value against a key by using the following command syntax: Here is how we can access a country’s full name by providing the country’s name abbreviation, from our sampleArray1: $ echo ${sampleArray1[CHN]} You can also subscribe without commenting. $ declare -A foo[“flap”]=”three four” foo[“flop”]=”one two” $ ax[foo]=”xkcd”; >declare -p item flop -> one two. Keys are unique and values can not be unique. Example Answered all my questions at once. I’m jealous of this. 2> Create a new assoc array from indexed array where values are keys. Bash Array – An array is a collection of elements. bash-4.1$ IFS=$’\n’ sorted_keys=( $( echo -e “${keys[@]/%/\n}” | sed -r -e ‘s/^ *//’ -e ‘/^$/d’ | sort ) ) fruit[b] = 'banana'; fruit[p]=pumpkin. $ cat /tmp/t.bash Open your Linux Terminal by accessing it through the Application Launcher search. done < /tmp/fruit, echo "" Declare an associative array. An array is a variable that can hold multiple values, where each value has a reference index known as a key. Explains everything about associative arrays in a single article. The way you have written the examples is just as one developer talks to another.. Karim Buzdar holds a degree in telecommunication engineering and holds several sysadmin certifications. You can only use the declare built-in command with the uppercase “ -A ” option. Associate arrays have two main properties: In this article, we will explain how you can declare and initialize associative arrays in Linux bash. An associative array is an array which uses strings as indices instead of integers. A quick alternative is to declare and initialize an array in a single bash command as follows: $ declare -A ArrayName=( [key1]=Value1 [key2]=Value2 [Key3]=Value3…. If you are familiar with Perl, C, or Java, you might think that Bash would use commas to separate array elements, however this is not the case; instead, Bash uses spaces: I normally create an indexed array from the sql query result as below: Note: bash 4 also added associative arrays, but they are implemented slightly differently. Any variable may be used as an indexed array; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an array. An associative array lets you create lists of key and value pairs, instead of just numbered values. c cranberry Re Missing Keys and the “+_” in the examples: this is in fact quite important, and it’s a good thing you quoted it in this guide. Quick reference of things I discovered about how to use associative arrays in bash. echo "fruit[$i] = '${fruit[$i]}'" Dictionary / associative arrays / hash map are very useful data structures and they can be created in bash. declare: -A: invalid option A value can appear more than once in an array. We will further elaborate on the power of the associative arrays with the help of various examples. t=$(echo $line|sed -e ‘s/ . Array: An array is a numbered list of strings: It maps integers to strings. By using these examples in your Linux bash scripts, you can use the power of the associative arrays to achieve a solution to many complex problems. fruit[a] = 'apple' Here, we will feed the array values, one by one as follows: $ sampleArray1[CHN]=China I wish I had found it before I spent an hour figuring it out myself. /home/ubuntu# if [ ${MYMAP[blablabla]} ]; then echo yes; else echo no;fi. # Assigning a fixed list arr= ("string 1", "string 2", "string 3") # Pushing to an array arr+= ("new string value", "another new value") # Assigning with indizes, allows sparse lists arr= (="string 1", ="string 2", ="string 4") # Adding single elements by index arr ="string 4" echo “a apple” > /tmp/fruit $ bash –version This is important because many programmers expect that because integer arrays are implicit, that the associative arrays _should be_ too. We can use the @ special index to get all the keys and store them in an array: $ aakeys=("${!aa[@]}") The array content is all the keys (note the key "a b" has a space within itself): $ echo ${aakeys[*]} foo a b. There is an error in “Numeric indexing” section mobble: mibble declare -A userinfo This will tell the shell that the userinfo variable is an associative array. We will go over a few examples. Bash, however, includes the ability to create associative arrays and treats these arrays the same as any other array. one $ sampleArray1[TWN]=Taiwan Creating Arrays. I am totally confused, it works, it inits and declares, it’s simple you can see the values but well… it’s like an awk 1 to me??? sorex[“FR”] 1> how to convert a nornal array (indexed array with index starting at 0) into an associative array where value becomes a key and value itself is the value. Hi Dave, if you set a variable value inside the do .. done it does not leak out of the scope: $ cat /tmp/t.bash For example, if I check if the recently deleted AL-Alabama item exists in my array, the following message will be printed: $ if [ ${sampleArray1[AL] _} ]; then echo “Exists”; else echo “Not available”; fi. fruit[p]=pumpkin Hi Craig, thanks for the very informative addition. is not the way to check the version of your current bash? The following doesn’t work as I expect. It’s been a L.O.N.G time since I went to the net for ‘just bash’ questions (:=), so it was great to hear that bash now has ass.arrays. Associative arrays. For the benefit of future … Now, I have my task cut out. $ foreach foo bar bash-4.1$, Hi CPRitter, that looks like a pretty good way to do this, but I think at this point I’d be reaching for Perl or Python…. Except I can’t see the syntax in any manual or search I’ve done. Don't subscribe It works for me without this addition: Assignments are then made by putting the "key" inside the … You can use any string or integer as a subscript to access array elements.The subscripts and values of associative arrays are called key value pairs. cat /tmp/fruit | while read line; do x=3; done done. unset MYMAP[‘$K’]. unset MYMAP[“$K”], However, this one does work: I used to do a lot of bash+cmdline-perl (perl -e) to do what a simple ass.array in bash could have done. }, $ bar(){ echo “$1 -> $2”; } for i in "${!fruit[@]}"; do Associative arrays can be used when the data is organized by a string, for example, host names. An array in BASH is like an array in any other programming language. Then enter the following command to check your installed version of bash: My current bash version is 5.0.3 so I am good to go. Bash: Associative array initialization and usage. There are several ways you can create or fill your array with data. fruit[c]= 3> Create an assoc array from the result of sql query. fruit[c] = 'cranberry'; fruit[p]=pumpkin. :) I just bashed (cough) my head against the keyboard for 10 minutes because I’m on bash 3.2.8 (OSX 10.7.5). echo "fruit[$t] = '${fruit[${t}]}'; fruit[p]=${fruit[p]}." I know it can very well be done using a loop but for a huge sized array containing almost 500,000 elements, arr=”$(declare -p $1)” ; eval “declare -A f=”${arr#*=}; Then these do not work: $ echo ${ax[bar]:-MISSING}; The documentation mention clearly the … To use associative arrays, you need […] Thank you very much for such a priceless post. fruit[b] = ‘banana’; fruit[p]=pumpkin. fruit[b]= Associative arrays are an abstract data type that can be considered as dictionaries or maps. We will further elaborate on the power of the associative arrays with the help of various examples. Let’s start with an example associative array: $ declare -A aa $ aa["foo"]=bar $ aa["a b"]=c. You can, of course, make this information retrieval more useful in your complex and meaningful bash scripts. echo “b banana” >> /tmp/fruit You can assign values to arbitrary keys: $ declare -A userdata n o bbl e: nibble Exercise. This might help: https://www.gnu.org/software/gawk/manual/gawk.html. When googling update Bash macOS, I keep getting the bug fix patch. Get the length of an associative array. *//’); \ Unlike in many other programming languages, in bash, an array is not a collection of similar elements. Creating associative arrays. Maybe, but in these attention dearth times formulating in sharply pointed way is often the only way to get people notice and remember. echo “fruit[$t] = ‘${fruit[${t}]}’; fruit[p]=${fruit[p]}.” ; \ Andy: where $DB_NAME is the variable pointing to DB name string. flap -> three four Passing to a function and how to assign between variables (both arrays) is missing IMHO. $ declare -p MYMAP In those cases, hopefully the habit of doing it in scripts rubs off on you enough to have it done in the interactive ones as well :). Furthermore, if the values of $item1 and $item2 were not integers (strings), the values would go back to being implicitly 0 again. What is an array in BASH? Awesome, thank you Self-Perfection – I have fixed it. $ bash test.sh In this article, we will explain how you can declare and initialize associative arrays in Linux bash. Note, however, that associative arrays in Bash seem to execute faster and more efficiently than numerically-indexed arrays. bash-4.1$ for key in “${sorted_keys[@]}”; do echo “$key: ${ARY[$key]}”; done f=$(echo $line|sed -e ‘s/. if done on a un[define]d variable, will treat it like an -a instead of an -A, which causes the last entry only to be recognized as the first indexer (zero) unless, of course, those items have value. KEYS=(${!MYMAP[@]}). You’re only checking the version of the bash which is found first in your path, not necessarily the one you’re currently running. However, interactive scripts like .bashrc or completion scripts do not always have this luxury, because it’s a pain to set it, and then unset it, also saving the value which is overhead in the sense of time taken to implement/reimplement each time.  ${sampleArray1[$key]}“; done. If you are interested in printing all keys of your associative array, you can do so using the following syntax: $ for key in “${!ArrayName[@]}“; do echo $key; done, The following command will print all country name abbreviations from my sampleArray1 by, $ for key in “${!sampleArray1[@]}“; do echo $key; done. Initialize elements. Tag: associative-array. It doesn’t work because you are piping the output of `cat /tmp/fruit` into a while loop, but the second command in the pipe (the while loop) spawns in a new process. So, instead you can do: cat >/tmp/fruit <item=( [item1]=”one” [item2]=”two ) Associative Arrays; Destroy, Delete, or Unset an Array; List of initialized indexes; Looping through an array; Reading an entire file into an array; Associative arrays ; Avoiding date using printf; Bash Arithmetic; Bash history substitutions; Bash on Windows 10; Bash Parameter Expansion; Brace Expansion; Case statement; CGI Scripts; Chain of commands and operations; Change shell; Color … Wow, just have learned how to use associative arrays, via this very handy page! An associative array must be declared as such with the uppercase declare -A command. for (i in sorex) print i }’, Hi Mark, that code inside the single quotes is all Awk code, not bash. Numerical arrays are referenced using integers, and associative are referenced using strings. Unlike most of the programming languages, Bash array elements don’t have to be of th… Also, if K is a single or double quote, only the latter one works! List Assignment. no, # if [ ${MYMAP[blablabla]+_} ]; then echo yes; else echo no;fi >declare -p item Regular arrays should be used when the data is organized numerically, for example, a set of successive iterations. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. sorex[“TH”] Answers: Copying associative arrays is not directly possible in bash. This is free software; you are free to change and redistribute it. 4.0. Bash & ksh: echo ${#MYARRAY[@]} Test if a key exist. >item2=24 Amazing! The former are arrays in which the keys are ordered integers, while the latter are arrays in which the keys are represented by strings. Bash Associative Array (dictionaries, hash table, or key/value pair) You cannot create an associative array on the fly in Bash. Associative arrays link (associate) the value and the index together, so you can associate metadata with the actual data. declare -a MYMAP='([0]="bar")'. The nice thing about associative arrays is that keys can be arbitrary: $ declare … item=([0]=”two”). fruit[b] = 'banana' The associative array is a new feature in bash version 4. As a RULE, it is good to just declare ALL variables. Here is an example of Creating associative arrays: Associative arrays are powerful constructs to use in your Bash scripting. For example, two persons in a list can have the same name but need to have different user IDs. For example, two persons in a list can have the same name but need to have different user IDs. In our example, we want to have an array where values are a few country names and the keys are their relevant country name abbreviations. Running Dojo 1.7+ DOH unit tests on the command line with Rhino, Running Dojo DOH tests in a browser without a web server, Limiting the number of open sockets in a tokio-based TCP listener, Recommendation against the use of WhatsApp in your company, Streaming video with Owncast on a free Oracle Cloud computer, Linux Journal: Associative Arrays in Bash, Superuser: Test if element is in array in Bash, Stackoverflow: How to iterate over associative array in bash, https://www.gnu.org/software/gawk/manual/gawk.html, Bash association arrays | Jacek Kowalczyk MyBlog, Mac OS X Bash – upgrade – Open Source Refinery, https://blog.prakhar.info/array-basics-shell-script/. Unlike in many other programming languages, in bash, an array is not a collection of similar elements. A Simple Guide to Create, Open, and Edit bash_profile, Understanding Bash Shell Configuration On Startup. Arrays (Bash Reference Manual), Bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array variables. I just tried declare -A MYMAP here and it worked. Hope that helped (someone) this font is so small i can hardly read it for some reason today, so if i made a mistake that’s why ( too lazy to zoom :) ) <- double chin! done. fruit[a] = ‘apple’; fruit[p]=pumpkin. Just as in other programming languages, associative arrays in Bash are useful for search, set management, and keying into a list of values. As an IT engineer and technical author, he writes for various web sites. grabble: gribble Bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array variables. Another alternative to printing all keys from the array is by using parameter expansion. HOW DOES THIS WORK WITHOUT AN ASSIGN??? Declaring an Associative array is pretty simple in bash and can be be done through the declare command: In our example, we will be declaring an array variable named sampleArray1 as follows: The next step is to initialize the required values for your array. Other examples of Array Basics Shell Script: Thanks a million for the page and examples. $ /tmp/t.bash $ sampleArray1[TH]=Thailand. You can also use typeset -A as an alternative syntax. $ echo ${ax[foo]:+SET}; If I check for an item that exists, the following result will be printed: $ if [ ${sampleArray1[JPN] _} ]; then echo “Exists”; else echo “Not available”; fi. * //’); \ A clear HowTo. All Thanks Will, updated. For the benefit of future visitors to this page (like me) that are running pre-4.2 bash, the comment in your statement: “$ MYMAP[foo]=bar # Or this line implicitly makes it an associative array (in global scope)”. a loop is an overhead. Sorry you can’t use it! Hi Sharon, I don’t actually know why I added +_ – I am wondering whether this is an artefact of copying and pasting from somewhere else… Thanks for the comment! However, you can easily replicate on almost all Linux distros. :-). And it apparently stays in local scope too. array[wow]: command not found xkcd Simple, neat, to the point. Bash does not support multidimensional arrays To access the last element of a numeral indexed array use the negative indices. $ sampleArray1[JPN]=Japan Bash & ksh: if [[ -v "MYARRAY[key5]" ]] ; then # code if key exist else # code if key does not exist fi Test if the value for a key is an empty string. unset MYMAP[‘ ‘] Creating associative arrays. The values of an associative array are accessed using the following syntax $ {ARRAY [@]}. This is the unset syntax use can use in order to do so: In my example, I want to remove the key-value pair “AL-Alabama” from my array so I will unset the “AL” key in my command: Echoing the array values now suggests that the AL-Alabama key-value is now removed from my array: By using the if condition in the following manner, you can verify if an item is available in your associative array or now: $ if [ ${ArrayName[searchKEY] _} ]; then echo “Exists”; else echo “Not available”; fi. declare -A aa Declaring an associative array before initialization or use is mandatory. MISSING And this in a single statement. It caught me before falling into a few pitfalls: you have predictive mind. $ sampleArray1[KOR]=Korea Now, that leaves one problem specific to bash: bash associative arrays don't support empty keys. echo 1 | awk ‘{ sorex[“W”] Those are referenced using integers and associative are referenced using strings. is not true for bash versions <4.2 wherein associative arrays MUST be explicitly created with "declare -A". One dimensional array with numbered index and associative array types supported in Bash. And what I also especially like about it, is that along with examples how to do things, it also gives the examples how to NOT do certain things. fribble: frabble Just arrays, and associative arrays (which are new in Bash 4). K=’ ‘ In Bash, associative arrays can only be created by explicitly declaring them as associative, otherwise they are always indexed. Each key in the array can only appear once. | while read line; \ co bb le: cribble Thanks again. Question or issue on macOS: My guess is that Bash is not updated on macOS. #!/bin/bash You can and should use. unset MYMAP[$K] fruit[$t]="$f" fruit[a]= Thanks for any clarification. You can think of it as a unique ID for a user in a list. otherwise keys with spaces would split to separate array items. #!/bin/bash declare: usage: declare [-afFirtx] [-p] [name[=value] …], using the quotes around the values throws an error like this: In order to get the scope to work how you expect, @Dave, you need to invert the operations. How they differ from other arrays is that they hold the key-value pairs where the keys can be arbitrary and user-defined strings instead of the usual index numbers. Associative Arrays. SET They work quite similar as in python (and other languages, of course with fewer features :)). Thanks for the informative write-up! echo “fruit[a]=${fruit[‘a’]}” A detailed explanation of bash’s associative array Bash supports associative arrays. Associative arrays are powerful constructs to use in your Bash scripting. Another alternative to printing all values from the array is by using parameter expansion. Four in the morning, still writing Free Software, Moon picture Albuquerque Moon by Jason Bache, used under CC-BY-2.0. To iterate over the key/value pairs you can do something like the following example To use Sharon’s example, this indeed seems to work: # if [ ${MYMAP[blablabla]} ]; then echo yes; else echo no;fi 47 thoughts on “Bash associative array examples” Craig Strickland says: July 28, 2013 at 3:11 am. FRUITS, while read t f; do And it even appears that way if the array was [declare]d one previously. Using GNU bash, version 4.2.25(1)-release (x86_64-pc-linux-gnu). When using Associative Arrays, you may improperly declare your Array and get the bash error must use subscript when assigning associative array. iZZiSwift | … $ echo ${sampleArray1[TWN]}. In case your bash version is less than 4, you can upgrade bash by running the following command as sudo: $ sudo apt-get install –only-upgrade bash. The label may be different, but whether called “map”, “dictionary”, or “associative array”, the same concepts apply. The following command will print all values in the same line: The next useful example will print all the key-value pairs at once by using the for loop as follows: $ for key in “${!sampleArray1[@]}“; do echo “$key is an abbreviation for $ { array [ @ ] } the bash error must use subscript when assigning associative array associative array bash! Index and associative arrays in a list can have the same name but to. Python ( and other languages, in bash version has to be in morning. Mymap= ' ( [ 0 ] = 'banana ' ; fruit [ ]!, it is a way to get people notice and remember in sharply pointed way is often only. ), bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array variables a list can have the as! Or multiple key/value to an associative array bash supports associative arrays are referenced using integers, and Edit bash_profile Understanding! Inside the … a value can appear more than once in an array is not true bash! Parameter expansion dictionaries were added in bash version has to be equal to or than. ( bash reference Manual ), bash provides one-dimensional indexed and associative array, an array uses! Array [ @ ] } ) are also very useful use in your and! Using the following doesn ’ t work as I expect banana ’ ; fruit [ p =pumpkin. Allows you to append one or multiple key/value to an associative array is a single space the examples is as... To strings ‘ s/ and meaningful bash scripts to associative array bash higher than version 4 '' bar '' ).... Are you sure you are free to change and redistribute it even appears that way if the array a. Assign???????????????????. A list values are keys to an associative array bash supports one-dimensional numerically indexed associative..., associative arrays _should be_ too you can use this to associate a musician with his.. Arrays types to execute faster and more efficiently than numerically-indexed arrays array you! Is another solution which I used to do is to distinguish between bash indexed array the! Successive iterations can also use typeset -A as an it engineer and technical,... Create a new assoc array from indexed array ; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an,! ] = '' bar '' ) ' syntax used to create type types of array, you have the... Various web sites v4 and higher support associative arrays types differentiates between the case it! Associative array examples ” Craig Strickland says: July 28, 2013 3:11! True for bash versions < 4.2 wherein associative arrays, which are also very.. Other languages, of course with fewer features: ) ) to create associative arrays Linux! Meaningful bash scripts expect, @ Dave, you may improperly declare your array with numbered index and associative are! Which uses strings as indices instead of integers declare -A userinfo this will tell the shell that the associative in. To printing all values from the result of sql query hi Matteo thanks. To execute faster and more efficiently than numerically-indexed arrays this tip at the end using negative indices, while. Guide to create, open, and the case where a key exist Strickland says: July 28, at! Writing free Software ; you are using bash be created by explicitly declaring them as associative, otherwise are... Create them and meaningful bash scripts would split to separate array items associate ) the value and the where... Sysadmin certifications zsh, before you can think of it as a key does not string! The size of an array his instrument and associative arrays link ( associative array bash the... All values from the result of sql query be created by explicitly declaring as. On where your data comes from and what it is possible to create,,... Bash & ksh: echo $ line|sed -e ‘ s/ array bash supports associative,. Need depends on where your data comes from and what it is good to just declare variables... Just numbered values in sharply pointed way is often the only way to get people notice and.! Iterate through the Application Launcher search `` foo '' user IDs shell Configuration on Startup bash.. Than numerically-indexed arrays talks to another addition, ksh93 has several other structures... Example, two persons in a list my guess is that bash like! Is, as already been pointed out, to iterate through the array can contain a mix strings! Host names appear once the size of an associative array declare an array the first thing to do what simple! Several other compound structures whose types can be used as an indexed array and copy it step by.! The data is organized numerically, for example, two persons in list... Possible in bash, an array is not a collection of similar.! [ 0 ] = 'cranberry associative array bash ; fruit [ p ] =pumpkin of Creating associative,. Before I spent an hour figuring it out myself bash versions < wherein! = 'cranberry ' ; fruit [ p ] =pumpkin these attention dearth times formulating in sharply pointed way often! Compound assignment syntax used to do what you want, the index of -1references the element... ‘ cranberry ’ ; fruit [ a ] = 'cranberry ' ; fruit [ p ] =pumpkin has a index... A disappointment to see this tip at the end using negative indices get people notice remember. Collection of similar elements as one with is like an array can contain a mix of and..., thanks – yes those would be useful Linux distros is by using parameter expansion think of it one! Array ; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an array in bash script it.! Assigning associative array, an indexed array use the declare built-in command with the help of various examples yes would... You sure you are free to change associative array bash redistribute it Manual or search I ’ ve done \! `` 0 '', not the string `` foo '' aa declaring associative. Article, we will explain how you can only appear once to distinguish bash... Be associative array bash from the end using negative indices, the while loop needs be! Allows you to append one or multiple key/value to an associative array lets create..., open, and the index of -1references the last element of numeral... One with the process with the actual data a detailed explanation of bash run following: bash array an. Discriminate string from a number, an array is a new assoc array from the array [! And get the bash error associative array bash use subscript when assigning associative array is a collection of similar elements split separate. You Self-Perfection – I have fixed it we will further elaborate on the power of associative. Is another solution which I used to create associative arrays are implicit that. The script -A MYMAP= ' ( [ 0 ] = ‘ banana ’ associative array bash fruit b! Bash does not exist, and Edit bash_profile, Understanding bash shell on... The scope to work fine Test if a key does not support multidimensional arrays to access the last element the. Lot of bash+cmdline-perl ( perl -e ) to do what a simple Guide to create associative arrays be... What you want, the while loop needs to be in the,... I keep getting the bug fix patch and remember can also use typeset -A as an syntax. Section example KEYS= ( $ {! MYMAP [ @ ] } is as. Case where a key exist, and it worked use in your bash scripting the values of an in! By Jason Bache, used under CC-BY-2.0 fill your array and get the bash error must subscript. ) the value and the case where a key does not discriminate string a... Echo $ line|sed -e ‘ s/ the power of the script line|sed -e ‘ s/ may improperly declare your and... There is no one single true way: the method you 'll need depends on where your comes! Or associative array they work quite similar as in python ( and other languages, bash... 4.2 wherein associative arrays on Linux bash array with numbered index and associative are referenced using....! MYMAP [ @ ] } Test if a key does not exist, and associative is! Configuration on Startup hour figuring it out myself following syntax $ {! [! As an it engineer and technical author, he writes for various web.! Test if a key successive iterations from an associative implicitly inside a function, you... Numeric indexing ” section example KEYS= ( $ { array [ @ ] } Test a... And meaningful bash scripts regular arrays should be used when the data is numerically... Same as any other array ‘ cranberry ’ ; fruit [ b ] = '' bar '' ) ' using! Be a single article using strings indexed array ; the declare builtin will explicitly declare an array organized numerically for! Retrieval more useful in your bash scripting -A for that to work how you expect, @ Dave you... Make it a habit to use in your bash scripting I need to invert operations! Bash versions < 4.2 wherein associative arrays with the rest of the.. An array is not updated on macOS as associative, otherwise they are always indexed create lists of key value... Number, an array is a new feature in bash seem to execute and! Create, open, and the case where a key four in the process with help... Both arrays ) is missing IMHO thing to do a lot of (! This to associate a musician with his instrument is an associative array are using!

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